Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Internet

1.) A protocol is a set of rules/expectations that allow trouble-less communication as long as everyone follows protocol.
2.) An IP address is a number organized in bits that correlates to a device within a network. These internet protocol addresses allow the destination (usually a website) to be reached. 
3.) An IP address contains 32 bits with 8 bits in each portion of the address. The first few digits of the address identify the regional network the device is in (although nowadays it is now just networks and sub networks). Next comes the subnetwork followed by the address of the device.
4.) There are 32 bits in an IPv4 address meaning that there can be (5.) 4 billion addresses.
6.)IPv6 differs from IPv4 in the amount of bits it uses and the amount of unique addresses it provides. IPv6 has 128 bits and 340 undecillion unique addresses. This increase in possible destinations is needed because the internet became more popular than what was expected when it was designed, and due to the growth we now need more unique addresses to reach more sites. 
7+8.) An IP packet has both the IP address and the data for the machine the address identified.
9.) DNS is used to look up domain names and get the IP address to direct the computer to the right destination. DNS servers are also divided into zones such as .org, .net, .com, etc. to organize and improve the efficiency of domain searching.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Three things I learned...

Fun Fact #1: There were 17 transmitters at the Marconi Center!
Fun Fact #2: One of the 17 transmitters at the Marconi Center ran for 20 years!
Fun Fact #3When messages were in the process of being sent they would require a lot of energy. This would occasionally lead to the flickering or dimming of lights in the center and in buildings around town.

Field Trip Picture #6 Second Building

This artifact shows no computational device, however it provides information on the means of communication for wireless operators. I chose this exhibit to photograph because I was shocked to hear that the operators would normally handle 500 messages daily. These are long Morse code messages... today I think I would get overwhelmed if I received 500 text messages a day.
Pictured is a small traffic rack with slots for the ships call signs to be read. Each ship was identified by one of the codes above like C6CN3 or C6DN. I found this interesting because I have always enjoyed puzzles, and this way of processing message from ships seems like one big puzzle.
Wireless communication is represented in this exhibit with the use of Morse code.

Field Trip Picture #5 Second Building

Pictured above is a Kleinschmidt Keyboard. It first grabbed my attention because it reminded me of the typewriter I used as a kid. Aside from the nostalgia though, this particular invention interested me because I got to actually use it! The job of this keyboard was to send Morse code to ships. To perform this duty the Kleinschmidt would punch a roll of paper with a pattern of holes (which reminded me of the Polar Express for even more nostalgia) and feed it through a scanner that would transmit the code. The message would then be sent to a printer device on the ship. That's one eventful text message!

Field Trip Picture #4 Second Building

Attached is a picture of a replica transmitter that was used in the operating days of the Marconi Center. I chose to photograph this because the pure size of the computing device shocked me. I am old enough to remember pre-flat screen tvs and "dinosaur" computers, but their large composition was nothing in comparison to this.
This transmitter was one of 17 in the Marconi Center and it was responsible for playing the messages that came in from ships. Morse code was used to communicate these messages, and based off of my half an hour experience in the building, I would guess that the beeping got fairly annoying to the people who worked there.
For its time, this computing device was brilliant. It played a major role in ship to shore communication and later told ships the location of surrounding ships.

Field Trip Picture #3

Attached is a picture of a drone and the video I watched about seals in Chatham. I chose this artifact because I thought it was intriguing and funny to view the large amount of seals all sunning in such a close proximity to each other. I understand that this is a normal behavior for these animals, but before drones, getting a shot from sky view wasn't as easy and certainly wasn't accessible for the average person. Another reason I chose the drone is due to a memory is called upon in my brain. I am a huge fan of true crime podcasts and I recall hearing a story about a drone finding the evidence that solved the puzzle in an unsolved murder case, similar to the story about the car that was found on Google Earth. I don't believe that the person who created the drone had the intention of creating a piece of equipment that could make such an impact on police investigations or the study of animal behavior, but it is pretty cool that that is how it ended up being used.
The purpose of the drone is to capture images from above an area. (hint: this could give you a mighty advantage at some fireworks shows). But the drone's role in wireless communication is between the drone and its controller. Using a camera that is attached the bottom of the drone, the operator is able to see if the drone has any threats to its stability or objects in the way of its course. Furthermore, the footage captured on the camera and its transfer to a storage device could also be considered a way of wireless communication.

Field Trip Picture #2

I chose this example of the insides of an IPhone 4S simply because it caught my eye. I have seen the parts of a calculator and even the inside of a phone when someone damages it severely, but I have never gotten information about what is what. Before taking computer science or attending this field trip, any inside of a computer just looked like a green pattern to me, but now I have at least a broad understanding of what each piece does and how each piece communicates with one another.
This exhibit of a phone circuit board points out the location of features such as the microphone, vibrator, speaker, and earpiece. One of the labels that caught me by surprise was that there are two separate microphones. One for videos, which is located on the top of the phone, and one for calls which is at the bottom of the phone. This may have been general knowledge but for me I never would have visualized it without viewing this exhibit. Some features of the phone were described in detail like the 8 Megapixel Camera or 5 Watt Hour Li Ion Battery.
Obviously, the iPhone and the cell phone in general have played a huge role in wireless communication, naturally increasing long distance dialogue between two people by allowing this ability to be done with ease. The iPhone uses Bluetooth and WiFi to make phone calls, and its controller for this function is located at the top left of the back of the phone.

Field Trip Picture #1

Pictured above is an explanation of acoustic shark tagging. This form of shark tagging can be done by the person standing on the boat without requiring them to pull the shark out of the water. It uses a dart to send ultrasonic pings every minute or so to log the shark's location. These pings vary from each other by containing a code that helps to identify the shark. Individually tracking a shark records patterns that can later contribute to observing trends in all sharks' behavior. 
In regards to wireless communication, the acoustic tag uses a Bluetooth system to upload the received data to a computer. 
I chose this artifact because my cousin was a shark tagger for a couple years and became fascinated with it. Naturally, his fascination with the activity rubbed off on my family and I. Shark tagging is a really cool concept because it brings awareness to the mistreatment of sharks which is typically overlooked since they are seen as a threat to humans. The tagging also allows us to see trends in shark behavior that are linked to climate change (water temperature, food source, etc.) Any evidence we can gather to support the claim that the environment needs help is good evidence because if action is not taken soon, it may be too late to save the diminishing population of these animals.

Ring Doorbell

I think ultimately the vendors/manufacturers are  responsible for this security concern because they are the ones putting out a product to i...